American Academy of Pediatrics

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AAP Publications Reaffirmed or Retired

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/145/4/e20200282?rss=1

Evidence-Based Updates on the First Week of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Infants >=35 Weeks

The nutritional and immunologic properties of human milk, along with clear evidence of dose-dependent optimal health outcomes for both mothers and infants, provide a compelling rationale to support exclusive breastfeeding. US women increasingly intend to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. Because establishing lactation can be challenging, exclusivity is often compromised in hopes of preventing feeding-related neonatal complications, potentially affecting the continuation and duration of breastfeeding. Risk factors for impaired lactogenesis are identifiable and common. Clinicians must be able to recognize normative patterns of exclusive breastfeeding in the first week while proactively identifying potential challenges. In this review, we provide new evidence from the past 10 years on the following topics relevant to exclusive breastfeeding: milk production and transfer, neonatal weight and output assessment, management of glucose and bilirubin, immune development and the microbiome, supplementation, and health system factors. We focus on the early days of exclusive breastfeeding in healthy newborns ≥35 weeks’ gestation managed in the routine postpartum unit. With this evidence-based clinical review, we provide detailed guidance in identifying medical indications for early supplementation and can inform best practices for both birthing facilities and providers.

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/145/4/e20183696?rss=1

Validation of a Prediction Rule for Mortality in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

BACKGROUND:
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare congenital anomaly with a mortality of ~27%. The Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Study Group (CDHSG) developed a simple postnatal clinical prediction rule to predict mortality in newborns with CDH. Our aim for this study is to externally validate the CDHSG rule in the European population and to improve its prediction of mortality by adding prenatal variables.

METHODS:
We performed a European multicenter retrospective cohort study and included all newborns diagnosed with unilateral CDH who were born between 2008 and 2015. Newborns born from November 2011 onward were included for the external validation of the rule (n = 343). To improve the prediction rule, we included all patients born between 2008 and 2015 (n = 620) with prenatally diagnosed CDH and collected pre- and postnatal variables. We build a logistic regression model and performed bootstrap resampling and computed calibration plots.

RESULTS:
With our validation data set, the CDHSG rule had an area under the curve of 79.0%, revealing a fair predictive performance. For the new prediction rule, prenatal herniation of the liver was added, and absent 5-minute Apgar score was taken out. The new prediction rule revealed good calibration, and with an area under the curve of 84.6%, it had good discriminative abilities.

CONCLUSIONS:
In this study, we externally validated the CDHSG rule for the European population, which revealed fair predictive performance. The modified rule, with prenatal liver herniation as an additional variable, appears to further improve the model’s ability to predict mortality in a population of patients with prenatally diagnosed CDH.

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/145/4/e20192379?rss=1

Antiemetics in Children With Acute Gastroenteritis: A Meta-analysis

CONTEXT:
Several antiemetics have been used in children with acute gastroenteritis. However, there is still controversy over their use.

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the effectiveness and safety of antiemetics for controlling vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis.

DATA SOURCES:
Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Latin America and the Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences, and gray literature, until December 2018.

STUDY SELECTION:
We selected randomized clinical trials comparing metoclopramide, ondansetron, domperidone, dexamethasone, dimenhydrinate, and granisetron.

DATA EXTRACTION:
Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias. We performed pairwise and network meta-analysis using the random-effects model.

RESULTS:
Twenty-four studies were included (3482 children). Ondansetron revealed the largest effect in comparison to placebo for cessation of vomiting (odds ratio = 0.28 [95% credible interval = 0.16 to 0.46]; quality of evidence: high) and for hospitalization (odds ratio = 2.93 [95% credible interval = 1.69 to 6.18]; quality of evidence: moderate). Ondansetron was the only intervention that reduced the need for intravenous rehydration and the number of vomiting episodes. When considering side effects, dimenhydrinate was the only intervention that was worse than placebo.

LIMITATIONS:
Most treatment comparisons had low- or very low–quality evidence, because of risk of biases and imprecise estimates.

CONCLUSIONS:
Ondansetron is the only intervention that revealed an effect on the cessation of vomiting, on preventing hospitalizations, and in reducing the need for intravenous rehydration. Ondansetron was also considered a safe intervention.

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/145/4/e20193260?rss=1

Continuous Albuterol With Benzalkonium in Children Hospitalized With Severe Asthma

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
The albuterol dropper bottle used to prepare solutions for continuous nebulization contains the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAC). BAC, by itself, has been shown to cause bronchospasm. We hypothesized that BAC would decrease the therapeutic efficacy of albuterol in patients with acute asthma exacerbations.

METHODS:
We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing the clinical outcomes of patients <18 years of age receiving continuous nebulized albuterol with and without BAC. For the primary end point (duration of continuous albuterol nebulization), we compared the 2 groups with Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival curves, conducted a log-rank test of difference, and adjusted for baseline characteristics using multivariable Cox regression. A P value <.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS:
A total of 477 patients were included in the analysis (236 exposed to BAC and 241 controls). The duration of continuous nebulization was significantly longer in the BAC group than in the control group (median of 9 vs 6 hours; 15.7% required continuous nebulization compared to 5.8% of controls at 24 hours). The control group was 79% more likely to stop continuous nebulization at any particular point in time (hazard ratio 1.79; 95% confidence interval: 1.45 to 2.22; P < .001) and 43% more likely to stop additional respiratory support (hazard ratio 1.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.16 to 1.75; P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:
BAC is a functional albuterol antagonist associated with a longer duration of continuous albuterol nebulization treatment and additional respiratory support, suggesting that preservative-free albuterol formulations are safer for use in continuous nebulization.

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/145/4/e20190107?rss=1

Costs and Use for Children With Medical Complexity in a Care Management Program

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Children with medical complexity (CMC) comprise only 6% of the pediatric population, account for ~40% of pediatric health care spending, and provide an important opportunity for cost saving. Savings in this group can have an important impact on pediatric health care costs. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a multicenter care management program on spending and use in CMC.

DESIGN AND METHODS:
We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of a population of 4530 CMC enrolled in a learning collaborative designed to improve care for CMC ages 0 to 21 years identified using 3M Clinical Risk Group categories 5b through 9. The primary outcome was total per-member per-year standardized spending; secondary outcomes included inpatient and emergency department (ED) spending and use. We used a 1:1 propensity score match to compare enrolled patients to eligible nonenrolled patients and statistical process control methods to analyze spending and usage rates.

RESULTS:
Comparison with the matched group showed a 4.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9%–7.3%) decrease in total per-member per-year spending (P < .001), a 7.7% (95% CI: 1.2%–13.5%) decrease in inpatient spending (P = .04), and an 11.6% (95% CI: 3.9%–18.4%) decrease in ED spending (P = .04). Statistical process control analysis showed a decrease in hospitalization rate and ED visits.

CONCLUSIONS:
CMC enrolled in a learning collaborative showed significant decreases in total spending and a significant decrease in the number of hospitalizations and ED visits. Additional research is needed to determine more specific causal factors for the results and if these results are sustainable over time and replicable in other settings.

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/145/4/e20192401?rss=1

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